6 types of biometrics used to identify people

The biometrics is one of the safest ways to identify people and data protection. It is used from ATMs in banks to airport boarding terminals. Even your cell phone, tablet or computer have a great chance of having a digital identification or facial recognition method.

What is Biometrics?

The word Biometry (from the Latin, bio + metria) is the measurement of life, or in more general terms, the statistical study of physical and behavioral characteristics.

In Information Security, biometrics consists in the application of metrics to biological attributes, for the purpose of gauging and identifying an individual. Biometrics is used to control physical access of people to certain sectors and rooms, to identify and locate criminals, and to prevent unauthorized persons from digitally accessing confidential data protected by authors or maintainers.

What are the most popular types of biometrics?

There are several types of biometrics, from hand geometry to signature analysis, which verify the authenticity of a document signed by pressure and mannerisms. We can list the six most popular types, used in a number of solutions, more or less safe or with more advanced studies than others, and which may be standard in the future.

1. Digital Printing

The biometric fingerprint recognition method is the oldest and least cost method for implementation. It is extremely reliable, given the very low mutability of data over time. Migrated smoothly from analog to digital.

Because fingerprints remain the same throughout life, the only possibility of presenting problems is if the person loses their fingerprints, regardless of the reason. For this reason, the method continues to be used alone or combined with others.

2. Facial Recognition

The facial recognition, even in this cell is to map a face, either in 3D (like Apple Face ID ) or 2D (as most smartphones). An image of the person who will be used to unlock functions and identification is created.

Among the arguments against the technique is the fact that the method is not permanent, while the user ages, can change the face with surgeries or has an identical twin. Data collection is also not accurate in 2D analysis, and even in-depth mapping often gives false positives.

Finally, there is the invasive factor:
Businesses and governments can collect data from people’s faces against their will by taking photos and videos in public places and using them for a variety of purposes.

3. Iris Recognition

Biometrics using the iris (the colored part of the human eye, which controls the entrance of light) is extremely reliable, since the membrane remains the same throughout life. Unlike the method of reading the retina, it is much less invasive and offers a high degree of reliability, besides being difficult to get around.

However, the implementation of the method is quite expensive, although it is thought that the iris reading will be the most used method of biometrics in the medium term, surpassing the fingerprint.

Many phones, especially premium models, bring a built-in iris scanner to the camera, offering such a security option to protect data.

4. Voice Recognition

The voice recognition method analyzes the physical parameters (vocal cords, larynx, etc.) and behavioral parameters, such as accents, mannerisms, intonation and so on. The result is a unique sound profile, which in thesis can be used as a biometric signature.

With low implementation cost, data reliability is poor, as any noise can compromise voice collection and analysis. Changes caused by health problems or even by ageing also bring down success rates.

5. Retina Recognition

It is one of the safest biometrics that exists, since the arrangement of blood vessels that irrigate the retina varies from person to person, and they do not change. The necessary means for collecting and reading the data is not simple, which makes it difficult to falsify information.

The user should look at a device and a low-intensity infrared light will “read” the retina. Although safe, it is quite invasive and uncomfortable.

6. Recognition by Typing

Slightly invasive, it relies on analyzing the pace and cadence of the user as they type. Each person has their own style, be it the number of fingers they use, the speed with which they type, the force that applies to the keys, and so on.

With low cost, its capture of the data is not so simple and it is unreliable, since a user can change the typing style, in an unconscious or intentional way.

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